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    An OSHA standards discount levitra pills database can be found here. Resources are available on the agency’s erectile dysfunction treatment webpage to help employers comply with these standards. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees.

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    The NSW Government is investing an additional $4 million viagra cialis levitra and vardenafil to fast-track the redevelopment of Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital to begin in 2020-21.Minister for Health Brad Hazzard said the funding boost will bring the total spend for the project to $438 million, which will also support the acquisition of nearby Nowra Park.“The NSW Government is committed to investing in regional hospitals to ensure patients receive high-quality healthcare closer to home,” Mr Hazzard said.“The land acquisition of Nowra Park is necessary to provide for the expansion of clincial services at Shoalhaven Hospital.”The existing hospital site with expansion into the adjacent Nowra Park has been identified as the best solution for the redeveloped hospital.Clinical services planning is already well underway to identify the range of health services the Illawarra Shoalhaven community will require into the future. The additional viagra cialis levitra and vardenafil funding will allow planning activities to progress including:Detailed site investigations, including in-ground investigations. Enabling works, including viagra cialis levitra and vardenafil services diversion and potential in-ground works.

    And Design works viagra cialis levitra and vardenafil for the redevelopment, including clinical design. Member for the South Coast Shelley Hancock released new artist impressions and said residents will benefit from the hospital expansion, with new and upgraded health facilities to be delivered sooner.“Additionally, as we can see in these stunning images, the completed hospital will return green space back to the community, with an inclusive playground a key component of the park,” Mrs Hancock said.Member for Kiama Gareth Ward said he’s pleased work can get underway on the expanded hospital as soon as possible.“With the ongoing investments we have already put into the Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, this is the next big step after the completion of the $11.8 million hospital car park project this year,” Mr Ward said.Construction will start on the redeveloped hospital in this term of Government, prior to March 2023The SDMH redevelopment is one of 29 health projects announced before the 2019 election and is a part of the NSW Government’s record $10.7 billion investment in health infrastructure over the viagra cialis levitra and vardenafil next 4 years.In the Illawarra Shoalhaven, other health projects include $700 million for a new Shellharbour Hospital, $37.1 million towards the Bulli Hospital and Aged Care Centre, and the Dapto and Ulladulla HealthOne projects, delivered as part of the $100 million HealthOne program.Artist impressions are available..

    The NSW Government is investing an additional $4 million to fast-track the redevelopment of Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital to begin in 2020-21.Minister for Health Brad Hazzard said the funding boost will bring the total spend for the project to $438 million, which will also support the acquisition of nearby Nowra Park.“The NSW Government is committed to investing in regional hospitals to ensure patients receive high-quality healthcare closer to home,” Mr Hazzard said.“The land acquisition of Nowra Park is necessary to provide for the expansion of clincial services at Shoalhaven Hospital.”The existing hospital site with expansion into the adjacent Nowra Park has been identified as the best solution for the redeveloped hospital.Clinical services discount levitra pills planning is already well underway to identify the range of health services the Illawarra Shoalhaven community will require into the future. The additional funding will allow planning activities to progress including:Detailed discount levitra pills site investigations, including in-ground investigations. Enabling works, including services discount levitra pills diversion and potential in-ground works. And Design works for the redevelopment, discount levitra pills including clinical design. Member for the South Coast Shelley Hancock released new artist impressions and said residents will benefit from the hospital expansion, with new and upgraded health facilities to be delivered sooner.“Additionally, as we can see in these stunning images, the completed hospital will return green space back to the community, with an inclusive playground a key component of the park,” Mrs Hancock said.Member for Kiama Gareth Ward said he’s pleased work can get underway on the expanded hospital as soon as possible.“With the ongoing investments we have already put into the Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, this is the next big step after the completion of the $11.8 million hospital car park project this year,” Mr Ward said.Construction will start on the redeveloped hospital in this term of Government, prior to March 2023The SDMH redevelopment is one of 29 health projects announced before the 2019 election and is a part of the NSW Government’s record $10.7 billion investment in health infrastructure over the next 4 years.In the Illawarra Shoalhaven, other health projects include $700 million for a new Shellharbour Hospital, $37.1 million towards the Bulli Hospital and Aged Care Centre, and the Dapto and Ulladulla HealthOne projects, delivered as part of the $100 million HealthOne program.Artist impressions discount levitra pills are available..

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    October 8, 2021. Lauren K. Roth, Associate Commissioner for Policy.

    End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2021-22452 Filed 10-8-21. 4:15 pm]BILLING CODE 4164-01-PExplore full-page version The pace of newly completed vaccinations in rural counties dropped by nearly half in the past three weeks.

    Rural (nonmetro) counties completed new erectile dysfunction treatment vaccinations for about 240,000 people the first week of October. Three weeks ago, nearly 450,000 rural Americans were newly vaccinated. Metropolitan counties also saw a similar percentage decline in the number of new vaccinations.

    As of Thursday, October 7, 42.6% of the total rural (nonmetropolitan) population was completely vaccinated against erectile dysfunction treatment. That’s an increase from two weeks ago of 0.5 percentage points. The gap between the rural and metropolitan vaccination rates remained at about 12 percentage points.

    Rural counties had seen a resurgence in new vaccinations throughout most of August and September. The surge in new vaccinations (which roughly followed the Delta variant surge) peaked the week of September 23 and has fallen for the past two weeks. Metropolitan counties followed a similar pattern.

    Like this story?. Sign up for our newsletter. Rural vaccination rates ranges from a high of 71.7% of total population in Massachusetts to a low of 20.4% in Georgia.

    (Georgia’s rural rate is artificially suppressed by a large number of vaccinations that are not allocated to specific counties and so can’t be analyzed as rural or metro. But the state is in the bottom 10 nationally for statewide vaccination rates.) Regionally, the Northeast had the highest rural vaccination rates. Hawaii and Arizona also ranked near the top.

    Arizona had the fifth highest rural vaccination rate, thanks to high numbers of vaccinations in Indian Country. Western New Mexico, which also has a high percentage of Native Americans, also had above average vaccination rates. The South and the Great Plains had the lowest regional rates.

    Nearly 90% of the nation’s 1,976 nonmetropolitan counties were below the national adjusted vaccination rate. More than a third were very low – 30% lower than the national average. Among metropolitan counties, about a third were above the national average and 70% were below.

    Guide to the Map The map above shows the vaccination rate for rural and metropolitan counties. Counties above the national average are shown in green (dark green for rural, light green for metropolitan). Counties slightly below the national average are shown in brown (rural) and orange (metropolitan).

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    Written/Paper Submissions Submit written/paper submissions as follows. • Mail/Hand delivery/Courier (for written/paper submissions) discount levitra pills. Dockets Management Staff (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, discount levitra pills MD 20852. For written/paper comments submitted to the Dockets Management Staff, FDA will post your comment, as well as any attachments, except for information submitted, marked and identified, as confidential, if submitted as detailed in “Instructions.” Instructions.

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    And 4 discount levitra pills p.m., Monday through Friday, 240-402-7500. Start Printed Page 56960 • Confidential Submissions—To submit a comment with confidential information that you do not wish to be made publicly available, submit your comments only as a written/paper submission. You should submit two copies total. One copy will include the information you claim to be confidential with a heading or cover note that states “THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS discount levitra pills CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION.” FDA will review this copy, including the claimed confidential information, in its consideration of comments. The second copy, which will have the claimed confidential information redacted/blacked out, will be available for public viewing and posted on https://www.regulations.gov.

    Submit both copies to discount levitra pills the Dockets Management Staff. If you do not wish your name and contact information be made publicly available, you can provide this information on the cover sheet and not in the body of your comments and you must identify the information as “confidential.” Any information marked as “confidential” will not be disclosed except in accordance with 21 CFR 10.20 and other applicable disclosure law. For more information discount levitra pills about FDA's posting of comments to public dockets, see 80 FR 56469, September 18, 2015, or access the information at. Https://www.govinfo.gov/​content/​pkg/​FR-2015-09-18/​pdf/​2015-23389.pdf. Docket.

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    Via email at CBERVRBPAC@fda.hhs.gov, or FDA Advisory Committee Information Line, 1-800-741-8138 (301-443-0572 in the Washington, discount levitra pills DC area). A notice in the Federal Register about last minute modifications that impact a previously announced advisory committee meeting cannot always be published quickly enough to provide timely notice. Therefore, you should always check the Agency's website at https://www.fda.gov/​AdvisoryCommittees/​default.htm and scroll down to the appropriate advisory committee meeting link, or call the advisory committee information line to learn about possible modifications before coming to the discount levitra pills meeting. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Consistent with FDA's regulations, this notice is being published with less than 15 days prior to the date of the meeting based on a determination that convening a meeting of the VRBPAC as soon as possible is warranted. This Federal Register notice could not be published 15 days prior to the date of the meeting due to a recent request to amend the Pfizer-BioNTech's Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for administration of their erectile dysfunction treatment mRNA treatment to children 5 through 11 years discount levitra pills of age and the need for prompt discussion of this request given the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra.

    Agenda. The meeting presentations will be heard, viewed, captioned, and recorded through an online teleconferencing platform. On October 26, 2021, the committee will discount levitra pills meet in open session to discuss a request to amend Pfizer-BioNTech's EUA for administration of their erectile dysfunction treatment mRNA treatment to children 5 through 11 years of age. FDA intends to make background material available to the public no later than 2 business days before the meeting. If FDA is unable to post the background material on its website prior to the meeting, background material will be made publicly available on FDA's website at discount levitra pills the time of the advisory committee meeting.

    Background material and the link to the online teleconference meeting room will be available at https://www.fda.gov/​advisory-committees/​advisory-committee-calendar. Scroll down to the appropriate advisory committee meeting link. The meeting will include discount levitra pills slide presentations with audio components to allow the presentation of materials in a manner that most closely resembles an in-person advisory committee meeting. Procedure. Interested persons may present data, discount levitra pills information, or views, orally or in writing, on issues pending before the committee.

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    Time allotted for each presentation may be limited. If the number of registrants requesting to speak is greater than can be reasonably accommodated during the scheduled open public hearing session, FDA may conduct a lottery to determine the speakers for the scheduled open discount levitra pills public hearing session. The contact person will notify interested persons regarding their request to speak by October 20, 2021. For press inquiries, please contact the Office of Media Affairs at fdaoma@fda.hhs.gov or 301-796-4540. FDA welcomes the attendance of the public at its discount levitra pills advisory committee meetings and will make every effort to accommodate persons with disabilities.

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    App. 2). Start Signature Dated. October 8, 2021. Lauren K.

    Roth, Associate Commissioner for Policy. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2021-22452 Filed 10-8-21. 4:15 pm]BILLING CODE 4164-01-PExplore full-page version The pace of newly completed vaccinations in rural counties dropped by nearly half in the past three weeks. Rural (nonmetro) counties completed new erectile dysfunction treatment vaccinations for about 240,000 people the first week of October.

    Three weeks ago, nearly 450,000 rural Americans were newly vaccinated. Metropolitan counties also saw a similar percentage decline in the number of new vaccinations. As of Thursday, October 7, 42.6% of the total rural (nonmetropolitan) population was completely vaccinated against erectile dysfunction treatment. That’s an increase from two weeks ago of 0.5 percentage points. The gap between the rural and metropolitan vaccination rates remained at about 12 percentage points.

    Rural counties had seen a resurgence in new vaccinations throughout most of August and September. The surge in new vaccinations (which roughly followed the Delta variant surge) peaked the week of September 23 and has fallen for the past two weeks. Metropolitan counties followed a similar pattern. Like this story?. Sign up for our newsletter.

    Rural vaccination rates ranges from a high of 71.7% of total population in Massachusetts to a low of 20.4% in Georgia. (Georgia’s rural rate is artificially suppressed by a large number of vaccinations that are not allocated to specific counties and so can’t be analyzed as rural or metro. But the state is in the bottom 10 nationally for statewide vaccination rates.) Regionally, the Northeast had the highest rural vaccination rates. Hawaii and Arizona also ranked near the top. Arizona had the fifth highest rural vaccination rate, thanks to high numbers of vaccinations in Indian Country.

    Western New Mexico, which also has a high percentage of Native Americans, also had above average vaccination rates. The South and the Great Plains had the lowest regional rates. Nearly 90% of the nation’s 1,976 nonmetropolitan counties were below the national adjusted vaccination rate. More than a third were very low – 30% lower than the national average. Among metropolitan counties, about a third were above the national average and 70% were below.

    Guide to the Map The map above shows the vaccination rate for rural and metropolitan counties. Counties above the national average are shown in green (dark green for rural, light green for metropolitan). Counties slightly below the national average are shown in brown (rural) and orange (metropolitan). Counties with very low vaccination rates were shown in red (rural) and light red/pink (metropolitan). You Might Also Like.

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    A record 3,834 Medicare Advantage plans will be https://www.bugeyvelo.com/cheap-levitra-canada/ available across the country as levitra with dapoxetine review alternatives to traditional Medicare for 2022, a new KFF analysis finds. That’s an increase of 8 percent from 2021, and the largest number of plans available in more than a decade.At the same time, levitra with dapoxetine review the number of Medicare Part D stand-alone prescription drug plans that will be offered in 2022 is decreasing by 23 percent to 766 plans, primarily the result of firm consolidations leading to fewer plan offerings sponsored by Cigna and Centene, according to another new KFF analysis.These findings are featured in two briefs released by KFF today that provide an overview of the Medicare Advantage and Medicare Part D marketplace for 2022, including the latest data and key trends over time. Medicare’s open enrollment period began Oct. 15 and levitra with dapoxetine review runs through Dec.

    7.Medicare AdvantageMore than 26 million Medicare beneficiaries – 42 percent of all beneficiaries – are currently in Medicare Advantage plans, which are mostly HMOs and PPOs offered by private insurers that are paid to provide Medicare benefits to enrollees.In 2022, a typical beneficiary will have 39 plans to choose from in their local market. But the number of Medicare Advantage plans available varies greatly levitra with dapoxetine review across the country, with an average of 42 plans in metropolitan areas and 25 plans in non-metropolitan areas. In 2022, 25 percent of beneficiaries live in a county where they can choose among 50 Medicare Advantage plans.Most Medicare Advantage plans (89%) include prescription drug coverage. Fifty-nine percent levitra with dapoxetine review of these plans do not charge any additional premium beyond Medicare’s standard Part B premium.

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    By century’s end, tens of levitra dosage sizes millions of U.S. Coastal property owners will face a decision embodied in the popular exhortation, “Move it or lose it.” But there’s an option for people who can’t imagine a home without an ocean view. It’s called “seasteading,” and it could be a 21st-century antidote levitra dosage sizes to the nation’s disappearing shorelines. €œFloating cities” could become climate havens for people whose lives and livelihoods are tethered to the sea or nearby coast, according to the San Francisco-based Seasteading Institute.

    In many cases, floating colonies would be populated by people whose homes are rendered uninhabitable by rising seas and storm surges that chew away at the edge of the continent. Residents would live levitra dosage sizes in modern homes built atop modular platforms that rise and fall with the tides. Some communities could be linked to the mainland by bridges and utility lines. Others could exist miles offshore as semiautonomous cities or even independent nations.

    €œNearly half the world’s surface is unclaimed by any nation-state, and many coastal nations can legislate levitra dosage sizes seasteads in their territorial waters,” says the Seasteading Institute, which has embraced floating cities with a near-religious fervor. A few would occupy converted cruise ships flying under independent flags. Others would look like condominium complexes built atop ocean freighters or barges. All will provide offshore refuge from traditional seaside communities where climate hazards are levitra dosage sizes becoming a part of daily life.

    As an added benefit, floating cities could enjoy a limitless supply of desalinated water, while homes and businesses would be powered by microgrids pulsing with wind and solar energy. Transportation would require little more than two feet or two wheels, and be entirely carbon-free levitra dosage sizes. In deeper water, floating cities could rely on aquaculture, hydroponics and rooftop gardens. Other essentials could be delivered by barge or ship.

    It’s a tough sell, often punctuated levitra dosage sizes by eye rolls. €œThe thing I usually hear when I first talk about this is, ‘Oh, you want to build ‘Waterworld,’” said landscape architect and seasteading advocate Greg Delaune, referring to the 1995 postapocalyptic film starring Kevin Costner as a kind of Mad Max of the sea. €œYou know, that’s not really the image we want people to conjure up, but it’s often the first thing that comes to their minds. I get it,” added Delaune, who recently co-founded the Deep Blue Institute, levitra dosage sizes a Louisiana-based organization dedicated to building marine-based resilient communities.

    Delaune is convinced that southeast Louisiana—one of the fastest-sinking coastlines in the world—could be a U.S. Prototype for such a community, where floating structures—homes, businesses, parks and marinas—would offer a more stable life than a sinking marsh. When hurricanes and storms threaten, as is increasingly common on the fast-warming Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, modular floating cities could be levitra dosage sizes partly disassembled and moved into safe harbor or to calmer waters, proponents say. The details of how that would happen remain sketchy.

    But ship-based communities already have the luxury of movement, and back-bay communities would garner some protection from the ocean shore. Futuristic as it sounds, seasteading is not new, and its adaptability levitra dosage sizes to the United States is already being tested through other human-inhabited offshore infrastructure. The Dutch model Oil and gas platforms host hundreds of workers for months at a time. And as energy companies migrate into deeper water, floating platforms levitra dosage sizes are becoming the norm.

    For proof, cross the Atlantic Ocean to the Netherlands, a climate-threatened country whose fate is tied to the sea. €œThe Dutch have been doing this for 400 to 500 years. Now they’re levitra dosage sizes selling their ideas around the world,” Delaune said. €œI see no reason why we can’t design and build sustainable, resilient sea-based communities right here, borrowing on some of the same marine-resilient infrastructure that made the United States a leader in these other offshore activities.” Experts say the origins of floating cities also lie in the Netherlands, where Dutch engineers have spent centuries adapting to life at the ocean’s doorstep.

    Much of the western half of the country is below sea level, and Amsterdam, with a population of 1.1 million, is nearly 7 feet below the adjoining North Sea. The Dutch way of coastal adaptation, distilled in the phrase “living with water,” has informed urban planning in waterfront cities around the world, notably its use of levitra dosage sizes highly engineered infrastructure like dikes, dams and floodgates. The Army Corps of Engineers incorporated such approaches into the redesigned Southeast Louisiana Urban Flood Control Project built after Hurricane Katrina. Lesser known but gaining notoriety are the floating homes developed over the last two decades around Amsterdam, one of the lowest-lying cities in the world.

    They include IJburg, a planned residential district east of levitra dosage sizes Amsterdam where more than 120 floating homes will make up “Waterbuurt West,” a floating suburb on an inland bay called the IJ. When fully developed, IJburg will support 18,000 floating homes for 45,000 people. But what of the United States, where cities like Boston, New York, Miami, Houston and levitra dosage sizes New Orleans are equally threatened by storm surges and rising seas?. Experts say it’s a slow process, in part because much of the coastal adaptation conversation has focused on shoreline protection, home elevations and coastal retreat.

    €œThe Dutch have this mentality that we can experiment. The U.S levitra dosage sizes. Mentality is we can’t change anything,” said Dale Morris, director of strategic partnerships at the Water Institute of the Gulf, a national nonprofit based in Baton Rouge, La., that provides research and technical support to communities preparing for sea-level rise and other climate change impacts. For eight years after Katrina, Morris worked for the Dutch government as a liaison to Louisiana and other coastal states facing challenges around water management, flood control and climate adaptation.

    Morris is an advocate for floating cities in the United States, but he is also a realist levitra dosage sizes. In an interview, he said floating cities are impeded by social, political, economic and cultural barriers. Among them are the long-standing American ideals of abundant land and natural resources, and the notion that people can spread out as cities become denser, dirtier and more expensive. That hasn’t happened levitra dosage sizes.

    Today, 95 million Americans, nearly 30% of the U.S. Population, live in coastline counties, according to the Census Bureau, compared with roughly 80 million people in 2000. Coastal cities also experience some of the most disruptive and costly climate change impacts, as evidenced by levitra dosage sizes the frequency of tropical storms like Superstorm Sandy and Hurricane Harvey, which hit two of the nation’s largest urban areas. Other hazards include peak rain events, or “rainbombs,” that quickly overwhelm urban infrastructure.

    And while storm surge flooding from hurricanes is catastrophic and occasional, king tides levitra dosage sizes and sunny-day flooding can occur daily and are equally damaging to low-lying cities, experts say. €œThere are visionaries who are investing in these important ideas, and the technology that allows us to do innovative things is improving all the time,” Morris said. €œBut the economic components of these ideas have to be addressed. There’s an iterative process between vision and levitra dosage sizes reality.” But, Morris noted, “it’s also true that without inspiration or vision, there is no progress.” Big ideas, big failures That’s where advocates have their work cut out for them.

    In the United States, much of the enthusiasm for floating cities is channeled through the Seasteading Institute, which was founded by Patri Friedman, an entrepreneur and grandson of the Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman, also a libertarian. Friedman and colleague Joe Quirk, the institute’s president, wrote the bible of floating cities, titled “Seasteading. How Floating Nations Will Restore the Environment, Enrich the levitra dosage sizes Poor, Cure the Sick, and Liberate Humanity from Politicians.” In it, they say “seasteaders are radically misunderstood by landlubbers.” Quirk did not make himself available for an interview, but in an email to E&E News, he said, “Not only is seasteading the quickest, cheapest solution to sea-level rise, we will increase the amount of life on the ocean with every seastead we build.” While not a developer, the institute is a portal for information and advocacy materials, including research papers, blogs, podcasts and YouTube videos explaining and extolling the virtues of floating human habitation. Its website also provides a list of “active” seasteading projects.

    Quick also co-created Blue Frontiers, a company that worked with French Polynesia in 2017 to establish a semiautonomous floating city off the Pacific island nation. With pilot costs estimated at between $30 million and $50 million, the project gained significant momentum before levitra dosage sizes it was postponed indefinitely by the government for political reasons, according to the firm. Most floating cities are overseas, but the institute’s list includes Delaune’s effort—called the “Louisiana Opportunity Zone Initiative,” or “Blue Tech Delta”—as well as several projects that remain under development or did not materialize. One in California called Ventive SeaTech aims “to build permanent ocean communities for the masses, using modular structures designed to make ocean living safe, comfortable and affordable.” Its primary product, the “floathouse,” levitra dosage sizes is shaped like a capsule with windows.

    It’s described as “a finished home, ready to move in, and is intended to be a year-round home for individuals or a family” by Ventive SeaTech. Another long-awaited project, conceived in 2011 by a California firm called Blueseed, would establish a floating city on a cruise ship parked in international waters about 12 miles offshore from San Francisco. Its developers levitra dosage sizes describe it an “entrepreneurial incubator” and “the Googleplex of the sea,” where international tech startups could collaborate on projects near Silicon Valley without obtaining visas to enter the United States. It raised several million dollars in seed money, including from the well-known tech financier Peter Thiel, but it has been mothballed for six years.

    Where Blueseed stumbled early, another cruise ship city that was set to sail this month imploded days before leaving dry dock. The MS levitra dosage sizes Satoshi, conceived as a Bitcoin-based technology hub anchored in the Gulf of Panama, was rerouted to a scrap yard in India after its owner, Ocean Builders, could not find an insurer to underwrite the floating city. In a statement, Ocean Builders said it had “hit the roadblock of having no insurance company willing to insure the MS Satoshi upon dropping anchor in the Gulf of Panama. The closest we came was a company toying with us with a million dollar premium for a maximum of $5 million in coverage, nothing close to the coverage we would need to be legally compliant.” The company said it will issue refunds for 100 cabins it auctioned last month for between $50,000 and $100,000 each.

    For U.S.-based seasteaders like Delaune, the bridge to a floating city could be years, levitra dosage sizes or even decades, away. But he is not discouraged. Since arriving in New Orleans, he has been canvassing the region for receptive audiences. He has found a few, including at the Tulane University School of Architecture, where a primary research effort is focused on implementing ideas that emerged a decade ago through the city’s levitra dosage sizes water management planning process called the “Dutch Dialogues.” “I have my pitch deck, and I’ve been rolling it out down here over the last few months,” Delaune said.

    €œThe big spin is the dying wetlands east of New Orleans, the buffer areas, the barrier islands. People cannot live levitra dosage sizes in these places anymore.” Delaune says the project could take years to materialize. But as Louisiana undergoes a multibillion-dollar restoration of its coastline, floating communities can be a part of the solution. €œThese people don’t want a Silicon Valley or NASA project to drop into their backyards,” he said.

    €œBut when your people are leaving and your economy is dying, there levitra dosage sizes is no plan B except to move away.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net.Editor’s Note. This blog was originally posted in December 2008 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Apollo 8’s historic mission. It has levitra dosage sizes been lightly edited.

    On December 21, 1968, Apollo 8 was launched on one of the greatest journeys in the history of human exploration. Imagine if Columbus took only the Santa María, sans landing boats, 3,000 miles across the Atlantic to the island of Hispaniola. Unable to go ashore, he circled levitra dosage sizes it and recorded his observations in logbooks. Returning later with a three-ship flotilla to plant the flag would still be dramatic, but also a tad anticlimactic.

    It’s hard to believe Apollo 8’s voyage around the moon had originally been scheduled as a levitra dosage sizes less audacious Earth-orbit mission to test the whole moonship “flotilla”. The monstrous, still problem-prone Saturn 5 booster, along with the recently redesigned, and only once-flown-by-astronauts Apollo command ship, which was fashioned to carry a three-person crew to and from Earth and into moon orbit. For a landing, it was to fly in tandem with a lunar lander that would ferry two astronauts to and from the moon’s surface. In 1968 the command ship was ready but the levitra dosage sizes lander was behind schedule.

    Officials feared that if NASA were to wait for it to test the whole system in Earth orbit before heading moonward, then the goal set by Pres. John Kennedy of a landing there by the end of 1969 would be near impossible. Not only was the clock ticking, but also the CIA had informed the agency that it believed the Soviet Union was on the verge of launching cosmonauts on levitra dosage sizes a moon mission. In August 1968 NASA's Apollo Spacecraft Program Office manager, George Low, proposed making Apollo 8 a mission to circumnavigate the moon some 234,000 miles away.

    Working out the details in secret, the Apollo team realized they could do it and, while there, go into orbit. Orbiting made the stakes levitra dosage sizes even higher. If a failure of the spacecraft's rocket engine left astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and Bill Anders stranded, NASA Administrator Jim Webb feared we would have “ruined the moon” for poets, lovers and everyone who would look at the orb and know there were three dead astronauts circling there. And, if the new navigational, communication or reentry components had failed, the crew could have been lost in space or have burned up in Earth's atmosphere on returning home.

    Apollo levitra dosage sizes 8 astronauts (left to right). Frank Borman, James A. Lovell Jr levitra dosage sizes. And William A.

    Anders arrive on the carrier U.S.S. Yorktown after splashing down to levitra dosage sizes complete the mission. Credit. NASA That year, public enthusiasm for human spaceflight was as high as it ever would be but a failure might have dampened enthusiasm, thereby slowing or even stopping the U.S.

    From fulfilling its attempt to fulfill Kennedy's goal levitra dosage sizes. Apollo 8 realized many firsts, including the first time humans had set their eyes on the moon's farside as well as the fastest astronauts (or, for that matter, anybody) had ever traveled—around 25,000 miles per hour—through space and into Earth's atmosphere during reentry. But what stands out for many is that it was also the first time most people back on Earth had seen their world as a sphere floating in the pitch-black void of space. The iconic Apollo 8 “Earthrise” photo taken over the lunar horizon is credited with inspiring global environmental consciousness and the cultural levitra dosage sizes viewpoint of our world as a unique and extremely fragile planet that must be preserved.

    What started as a gamble became one of humanity's greatest moments in exploration—and a public relations coup for NASA. Not only that, but people needed a moment levitra dosage sizes like this in a year like 1968—one shattered by antiwar and race protests and riots. The assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy.

    As well as war, both hot and levitra dosage sizes cold. Earth, photographed by William A. Anders as Apollo 8 orbited the moon. Credit.

    NASA So, there it was, just what the doctor ordered. On Christmas Eve, pajama-clad kids who otherwise would be looking skyward for eight tiny reindeer were glued to their TV sets, along with an estimated half a billion people around the world, gaping at the moon’s stark, cratered surface hurtling by just 69 miles below and listening to awe-inspired astronauts who read “Genesis” and sent yuletide greetings to “all of you on the good Earth”—the same good Earth they had been viewing in black and white as a fuzzy, cloud-veiled, gibbous globe, like they had never seen it before. Small wonder then that when Borman got back, someone had sent him a message. €œThanks for saving 1968.”With that famous song, sleigh rides and snowmen who magically come alive, so much of the cultural imagery associated with Christmas features a glistening carpet of snow.

    But as rising global temperatures start to dull winter's bitter edge, will the proverbial White Christmas become just a bit of Yuletide lore?. Although logic would seem to suggest that warming would mean less snow, the impact of climate change on where—and how much—snow falls is more complicated than that. Climate science cannot say whether there will be snow on the ground in Boston or Chicago on Christmas Day 2050, but there are some general trends scientists expect to see—and also some less intuitive ones. One reason the influence of climate change on snow is difficult to untangle is that snow can be a very localized phenomenon.

    One town may be socked in, whereas houses just a few miles away get only a dusting. And the chances of a given location having snow on the ground on any particular date, such as December 25, can vary widely from year to year outside of the most northern locations (in the Northern Hemisphere, where most related research has been conducted). Those traits, along with variations in how snow is measured, make compiling snowfall data to look for trends a delicate business. "That's why you look at multiple years, at multiple stations.

    Never trust just a couple of measurements," says New Jersey state climatologist David Robinson, who studies snow and climate at Rutgers University. On top of those issues, there are more ingredients to consider when understanding precipitation trends than there are for temperature, because wind patterns in the atmosphere come into play. And snow has even more constraints than rain, as it only materializes when temperatures fall below the freezing point. That temperature dependence means that in a warmer future, "you're going to have more cases where temperatures are just above that magic mark," Robinson says, meaning more winter precipitation will fall as rain.

    This trend will start in more southerly locations (in the Northern Hemisphere), and at lower elevations, and will gradually progress northward as the planet heats up. In places where winter temperatures do stay below freezing, however, more snow could actually fall because warmer air holds more moisture. There is already some evidence backing both of these expected trends, Robinson says, with regions such as the Upper Midwest recording more snow in recent years and the southern reaches of the U.S. Seeing declines.

    That second point about moisture in a warmer atmosphere is behind one of the quirks scientists have uncovered. Although snow will become less common overall, extreme snowfalls will decline at a slower rate than average ones, so that blockbuster snowstorms become a bigger proportion of all snow events. M.I.T. Atmospheric scientist Paul O'Gorman explained this quirk in a 2014 study in Nature, noting that extreme snowfalls happen in a narrower temperature band than snow overall—temperatures need to be cold enough to freeze precipitation, but not so cold that the atmosphere dries out.

    So warming temperatures chip away faster at the broader temperature range in which all snow occurs than they do at the range for extreme snowfalls. Warming may also boost—and change the timing of—a particular type of snowfall. Lake-effect snow, which in the U.S. Is mostly commonly associated with the Great Lakes.

    Lake-effect snow happens when cold Canadian air pushes down over the lakes when they are still relatively warm and not yet iced over. This cold air causes the lake water to evaporate, which warms the air above the lake surface. That air rises, cooling again as it does so. Any moisture in it can then freeze and fall as snow.

    Rising temperatures will keep lakes warmer, providing more moisture when cold winds happen to blow overhead. Those warmer temperatures will also keep the lakes ice-free for longer into the fall, expanding the lake-effect season. Climate models suggest that trend will not last forever, though, as air temperatures could eventually become too warm to support snow. But while it does, it could mean that areas where lake-effect snow is common could see more Christmas snow if conditions are right.

    Yet on a broader scale, picking out any seasonal trends in snow extent—the area covered by snow—is more difficult. There is a clear trend toward earlier melt in the spring, which was particularly evident during the recent extremely warm years in the western U.S. "Irrefutably, [snow extent] is declining in the spring," Robinson says. But for fall and winter "there's no clear signal," he adds.

    "There's no glaring change … when it comes to Christmas-time snow." The bottom line, he says, is that we will see snowstorms in the future, and some of those will coincide with Christmas. "There's still going to be winter," Robinson says. "I think people can expect change, but if they're looking for the total demise of snow, I think that's premature."Since it was first noticed in Berks County, Pennsylvania, in 2014, the spotted lanternfly—a one-inch-long plant hopper that resembles a moth and is native to parts of Southeast Asia—has been wreaking havoc on East Coast lumber, tree fruit and wine industries. It has spread to at least 26 Pennsylvania counties as well as parts of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia.

    The invasive, plant-killing insects are known to lay their eggs on almost any surface, including vehicle exteriors. These egg masses “are most concerning because they can go very far, by hitchhiking,” says Maureen Tang, a chemical and biological engineer at Drexel University. Tang is coordinating a project that asks the pubic to help halt the lanternfly’s spread. Anyone who spots an egg mass can submit photos, with which Tang’s team will train a sophisticated algorithm that scanning devices can use to search for the eggs.

    (You can contribute photos here.) Adult lanternflies can fly but prefer to hop. They feast on more than 70 plant species and leave behind “honeydew” droppings, which attract wasps and other stinging insects, and which breed a black, sooty mold that can be fatal to vegetation. The mature insects die in the cold, but their egg masses, which can hold between 30 and 50 eggs and look like a grayish putty, withstand winter temperatures and release a new generation in the spring. Lanternfly eggs.

    Credit. Getty Images The team currently has about 400 crowdsourced photos for its data set and anticipates thousands by winter’s end, says Drexel mechanical engineer Antonios Kontsos, who is building the image-processing algorithm. Once fully trained, it will let scanning devices detect significant infestations in real time, Kontsos says. The system will first be put to work in high-risk areas such as rail and shipping yards, where storage containers often sit around for long periods of time and it is difficult and dangerous for a human to check underneath them for egg masses, Tang says.

    The lanternflies’ favorite tree, Ailanthus—native to areas the bugs came from—tends to grow near railroad tracks. Drones already use computer vision to scan for signs of pests, by flying over crops and treescapes to check for significant areas of damage. But Tang says her team’s type of discrete, close-up egg detection system is new. €œ;We’ve seen a lot of ingenuity come from spotted lanternfly [research], and this is another great example,”.

    Says Heather Leach, who studies these insects at Pennsylvania State University and is not involved in the photo initiative. Any methods that improve the ability to detect and reduce spread of the bug, especially in areas where it’s not yet established, offers a better chance at controlling it, Leach says. The team aims to finish the algorithm and start using it to search for eggs before the bugs begin emerging. Egg masses are much easier to contain than jumping nymphs or swarming adults, notes Karen Verderame, Drexel’s curator of entomology.

    Researchers will first target top-priority areas using a portable scanning device that can search for egg masses in visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, Kontsos says. He anticipates someday using a version of this device in a “precision-agriculture framework,” installing it on a drone for efficient, large-area scans. €œFrom an environmental perspective, [this multidisciplinary effort is] the way of the future,” Verderame says. €œYou have to take an out-of-the-box perspective.

    It really will take a collaboration of the sciences.”.

    By century’s discount levitra pills end, tens of millions of U.S. Coastal property owners will face a decision embodied in the popular exhortation, “Move it or lose it.” But there’s an option for people who can’t imagine a home without an ocean view. It’s called “seasteading,” and it could be a discount levitra pills 21st-century antidote to the nation’s disappearing shorelines. €œFloating cities” could become climate havens for people whose lives and livelihoods are tethered to the sea or nearby coast, according to the San Francisco-based Seasteading Institute. In many cases, floating colonies would be populated by people whose homes are rendered uninhabitable by rising seas and storm surges that chew away at the edge of the continent.

    Residents would live in modern homes built atop modular platforms that rise and fall with the discount levitra pills tides. Some communities could be linked to the mainland by bridges and utility lines. Others could exist miles offshore as semiautonomous cities or even independent nations. €œNearly half the world’s surface is unclaimed by any nation-state, and many coastal nations can legislate seasteads discount levitra pills in their territorial waters,” says the Seasteading Institute, which has embraced floating cities with a near-religious fervor. A few would occupy converted cruise ships flying under independent flags.

    Others would look like condominium complexes built atop ocean freighters or barges. All will provide offshore refuge discount levitra pills from traditional seaside communities where climate hazards are becoming a part of daily life. As an added benefit, floating cities could enjoy a limitless supply of desalinated water, while homes and businesses would be powered by microgrids pulsing with wind and solar energy. Transportation would discount levitra pills require little more than two feet or two wheels, and be entirely carbon-free. In deeper water, floating cities could rely on aquaculture, hydroponics and rooftop gardens.

    Other essentials could be delivered by barge or ship. It’s a tough sell, often punctuated discount levitra pills by eye rolls. €œThe thing I usually hear when I first talk about this is, ‘Oh, you want to build ‘Waterworld,’” said landscape architect and seasteading advocate Greg Delaune, referring to the 1995 postapocalyptic film starring Kevin Costner as a kind of Mad Max of the sea. €œYou know, that’s not really the image we want people to conjure up, but it’s often the first thing that comes to their minds. I get it,” added discount levitra pills Delaune, who recently co-founded the Deep Blue Institute, a Louisiana-based organization dedicated to building marine-based resilient communities.

    Delaune is convinced that southeast Louisiana—one of the fastest-sinking coastlines in the world—could be a U.S. Prototype for such a community, where floating structures—homes, businesses, parks and marinas—would offer a more stable life than a sinking marsh. When hurricanes and storms threaten, as is increasingly common on the fast-warming discount levitra pills Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, modular floating cities could be partly disassembled and moved into safe harbor or to calmer waters, proponents say. The details of how that would happen remain sketchy. But ship-based communities already have the luxury of movement, and back-bay communities would garner some protection from the ocean shore.

    Futuristic as it discount levitra pills sounds, seasteading is not new, and its adaptability to the United States is already being tested through other human-inhabited offshore infrastructure. The Dutch model Oil and gas platforms host hundreds of workers for months at a time. And as energy discount levitra pills companies migrate into deeper water, floating platforms are becoming the norm. For proof, cross the Atlantic Ocean to the Netherlands, a climate-threatened country whose fate is tied to the sea. €œThe Dutch have been doing this for 400 to 500 years.

    Now they’re selling their ideas around the discount levitra pills world,” Delaune said. €œI see no reason why we can’t design and build sustainable, resilient sea-based communities right here, borrowing on some of the same marine-resilient infrastructure that made the United States a leader in these other offshore activities.” Experts say the origins of floating cities also lie in the Netherlands, where Dutch engineers have spent centuries adapting to life at the ocean’s doorstep. Much of the western half of the country is below sea level, and Amsterdam, with a population of 1.1 million, is nearly 7 feet below the adjoining North Sea. The Dutch way discount levitra pills of coastal adaptation, distilled in the phrase “living with water,” has informed urban planning in waterfront cities around the world, notably its use of highly engineered infrastructure like dikes, dams and floodgates. The Army Corps of Engineers incorporated such approaches into the redesigned Southeast Louisiana Urban Flood Control Project built after Hurricane Katrina.

    Lesser known but gaining notoriety are the floating homes developed over the last two decades around Amsterdam, one of the lowest-lying cities in the world. They include IJburg, a planned residential district east of discount levitra pills Amsterdam where more than 120 floating homes will make up “Waterbuurt West,” a floating suburb on an inland bay called the IJ. When fully developed, IJburg will support 18,000 floating homes for 45,000 people. But what discount levitra pills of the United States, where cities like Boston, New York, Miami, Houston and New Orleans are equally threatened by storm surges and rising seas?. Experts say it’s a slow process, in part because much of the coastal adaptation conversation has focused on shoreline protection, home elevations and coastal retreat.

    €œThe Dutch have this mentality that we can experiment. The U.S discount levitra pills. Mentality is we can’t change anything,” said Dale Morris, director of strategic partnerships at the Water Institute of the Gulf, a national nonprofit based in Baton Rouge, La., that provides research and technical support to communities preparing for sea-level rise and other climate change impacts. For eight years after Katrina, Morris worked for the Dutch government as a liaison to Louisiana and other coastal states facing challenges around water management, flood control and climate adaptation. Morris is discount levitra pills an advocate for floating cities in the United States, but he is also a realist.

    In an interview, he said floating cities are impeded by social, political, economic and cultural barriers. Among them are the long-standing American ideals of abundant land and natural resources, and the notion that people can spread out as cities become denser, dirtier and more expensive. That hasn’t happened discount levitra pills. Today, 95 million Americans, nearly 30% of the U.S. Population, live in coastline counties, according to the Census Bureau, compared with roughly 80 million people in 2000.

    Coastal cities also experience some of the most disruptive and costly climate change impacts, as evidenced by the frequency of tropical storms like Superstorm Sandy discount levitra pills and Hurricane Harvey, which hit two of the nation’s largest urban areas. Other hazards include peak rain events, or “rainbombs,” that quickly overwhelm urban infrastructure. And while storm surge flooding from hurricanes is catastrophic and discount levitra pills occasional, king tides and sunny-day flooding can occur daily and are equally damaging to low-lying cities, experts say. €œThere are visionaries who are investing in these important ideas, and the technology that allows us to do innovative things is improving all the time,” Morris said. €œBut the economic components of these ideas have to be addressed.

    There’s an iterative process between vision and reality.” But, Morris noted, “it’s also true that without inspiration or vision, there is no progress.” Big discount levitra pills ideas, big failures That’s where advocates have their work cut out for them. In the United States, much of the enthusiasm for floating cities is channeled through the Seasteading Institute, which was founded by Patri Friedman, an entrepreneur and grandson of the Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman, also a libertarian. Friedman and colleague Joe Quirk, the institute’s president, wrote the bible of floating cities, titled “Seasteading. How Floating Nations Will Restore the Environment, Enrich the Poor, Cure the Sick, and Liberate Humanity from Politicians.” In it, they say “seasteaders are radically misunderstood by landlubbers.” Quirk did not make himself available for an interview, but in an email to E&E News, he said, “Not only is seasteading the quickest, cheapest solution to sea-level rise, we will increase the discount levitra pills amount of life on the ocean with every seastead we build.” While not a developer, the institute is a portal for information and advocacy materials, including research papers, blogs, podcasts and YouTube videos explaining and extolling the virtues of floating human habitation. Its website also provides a list of “active” seasteading projects.

    Quick also co-created Blue Frontiers, a company that worked with French Polynesia in 2017 to establish a semiautonomous floating city off the Pacific island nation. With pilot costs estimated at between $30 million and $50 million, the project gained significant momentum before it was postponed indefinitely by the government for political discount levitra pills reasons, according to the firm. Most floating cities are overseas, but the institute’s list includes Delaune’s effort—called the “Louisiana Opportunity Zone Initiative,” or “Blue Tech Delta”—as well as several projects that remain under development or did not materialize. One in California called Ventive SeaTech aims “to build permanent ocean communities for the masses, using modular structures designed to make ocean living safe, comfortable and affordable.” Its primary discount levitra pills product, the “floathouse,” is shaped like a capsule with windows. It’s described as “a finished home, ready to move in, and is intended to be a year-round home for individuals or a family” by Ventive SeaTech.

    Another long-awaited project, conceived in 2011 by a California firm called Blueseed, would establish a floating city on a cruise ship parked in international waters about 12 miles offshore from San Francisco. Its developers describe it an “entrepreneurial incubator” and “the Googleplex of the sea,” where international tech startups could collaborate on projects near Silicon Valley discount levitra pills without obtaining visas to enter the United States. It raised several million dollars in seed money, including from the well-known tech financier Peter Thiel, but it has been mothballed for six years. Where Blueseed stumbled early, another cruise ship city that was set to sail this month imploded days before leaving dry dock. The MS discount levitra pills Satoshi, conceived as a Bitcoin-based technology hub anchored in the Gulf of Panama, was rerouted to a scrap yard in India after its owner, Ocean Builders, could not find an insurer to underwrite the floating city.

    In a statement, Ocean Builders said it had “hit the roadblock of having no insurance company willing to insure the MS Satoshi upon dropping anchor in the Gulf of Panama. The closest we came was a company toying with us with a million dollar premium for a maximum of $5 million in coverage, nothing close to the coverage we would need to be legally compliant.” The company said it will issue refunds for 100 cabins it auctioned last month for between $50,000 and $100,000 each. For U.S.-based seasteaders like Delaune, the bridge to a floating city could be years, discount levitra pills or even decades, away. But he is not discouraged. Since arriving in New Orleans, he has been canvassing the region for receptive audiences.

    He has found a few, including at the Tulane University School of Architecture, where a primary research effort is focused on implementing ideas that emerged a decade ago through the city’s water management discount levitra pills planning process called the “Dutch Dialogues.” “I have my pitch deck, and I’ve been rolling it out down here over the last few months,” Delaune said. €œThe big spin is the dying wetlands east of New Orleans, the buffer areas, the barrier islands. People cannot live in these places discount levitra pills anymore.” Delaune says the project could take years to materialize. But as Louisiana undergoes a multibillion-dollar restoration of its coastline, floating communities can be a part of the solution. €œThese people don’t want a Silicon Valley or NASA project to drop into their backyards,” he said.

    €œBut when your people are leaving and your economy is dying, discount levitra pills there is no plan B except to move away.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net.Editor’s Note. This blog was originally posted in December 2008 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Apollo 8’s historic mission. It has discount levitra pills been lightly edited. On December 21, 1968, Apollo 8 was launched on one of the greatest journeys in the history of human exploration.

    Imagine if Columbus took only the Santa María, sans landing boats, 3,000 miles across the Atlantic to the island of Hispaniola. Unable to go ashore, he circled it and recorded discount levitra pills his observations in logbooks. Returning later with a three-ship flotilla to plant the flag would still be dramatic, but also a tad anticlimactic. It’s hard to believe Apollo 8’s voyage around the moon had originally been scheduled discount levitra pills as a less audacious Earth-orbit mission to test the whole moonship “flotilla”. The monstrous, still problem-prone Saturn 5 booster, along with the recently redesigned, and only once-flown-by-astronauts Apollo command ship, which was fashioned to carry a three-person crew to and from Earth and into moon orbit.

    For a landing, it was to fly in tandem with a lunar lander that would ferry two astronauts to and from the moon’s surface. In 1968 the command ship was ready but the lander was behind schedule discount levitra pills. Officials feared that if NASA were to wait for it to test the whole system in Earth orbit before heading moonward, then the goal set by Pres. John Kennedy of a landing there by the end of 1969 would be near impossible. Not only was the clock ticking, but also the CIA had informed the agency that it believed the Soviet Union was on the verge discount levitra pills of launching cosmonauts on a moon mission.

    In August 1968 NASA's Apollo Spacecraft Program Office manager, George Low, proposed making Apollo 8 a mission to circumnavigate the moon some 234,000 miles away. Working out the details in secret, the Apollo team realized they could do it and, while there, go into orbit. Orbiting made the stakes even higher discount levitra pills. If a failure of the spacecraft's rocket engine left astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and Bill Anders stranded, NASA Administrator Jim Webb feared we would have “ruined the moon” for poets, lovers and everyone who would look at the orb and know there were three dead astronauts circling there. And, if the new navigational, communication or reentry components had failed, the crew could have been lost in space or have burned up in Earth's atmosphere on returning home.

    Apollo 8 astronauts (left to right) discount levitra pills. Frank Borman, James A. Lovell Jr discount levitra pills. And William A. Anders arrive on the carrier U.S.S.

    Yorktown after splashing down to complete the mission discount levitra pills. Credit. NASA That year, public enthusiasm for human spaceflight was as high as it ever would be but a failure might have dampened enthusiasm, thereby slowing or even stopping the U.S. From fulfilling discount levitra pills its attempt to fulfill Kennedy's goal. Apollo 8 realized many firsts, including the first time humans had set their eyes on the moon's farside as well as the fastest astronauts (or, for that matter, anybody) had ever traveled—around 25,000 miles per hour—through space and into Earth's atmosphere during reentry.

    But what stands out for many is that it was also the first time most people back on Earth had seen their world as a sphere floating in the pitch-black void of space. The iconic Apollo 8 “Earthrise” photo taken over the lunar horizon is credited with inspiring global environmental consciousness and the cultural viewpoint of our world as a unique and extremely fragile planet that must discount levitra pills be preserved. What started as a gamble became one of humanity's greatest moments in exploration—and a public relations coup for NASA. Not only that, but people needed a moment like this in a year discount levitra pills like 1968—one shattered by antiwar and race protests and riots. The assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert F.

    Kennedy. As well as war, both hot and discount levitra pills cold. Earth, photographed by William A. Anders as Apollo 8 orbited the moon. Credit.

    NASA So, there it was, just what the doctor ordered. On Christmas Eve, pajama-clad kids who otherwise would be looking skyward for eight tiny reindeer were glued to their TV sets, along with an estimated half a billion people around the world, gaping at the moon’s stark, cratered surface hurtling by just 69 miles below and listening to awe-inspired astronauts who read “Genesis” and sent yuletide greetings to “all of you on the good Earth”—the same good Earth they had been viewing in black and white as a fuzzy, cloud-veiled, gibbous globe, like they had never seen it before. Small wonder then that when Borman got back, someone had sent him a message. €œThanks for saving 1968.”With that famous song, sleigh rides and snowmen who magically come alive, so much of the cultural imagery associated with Christmas features a glistening carpet of snow. But as rising global temperatures start to dull winter's bitter edge, will the proverbial White Christmas become just a bit of Yuletide lore?.

    Although logic would seem to suggest that warming would mean less snow, the impact of climate change on where—and how much—snow falls is more complicated than that. Climate science cannot say whether there will be snow on the ground in Boston or Chicago on Christmas Day 2050, but there are some general trends scientists expect to see—and also some less intuitive ones. One reason the influence of climate change on snow is difficult to untangle is that snow can be a very localized phenomenon. One town may be socked in, whereas houses just a few miles away get only a dusting. And the chances of a given location having snow on the ground on any particular date, such as December 25, can vary widely from year to year outside of the most northern locations (in the Northern Hemisphere, where most related research has been conducted).

    Those traits, along with variations in how snow is measured, make compiling snowfall data to look for trends a delicate business. "That's why you look at multiple years, at multiple stations. Never trust just a couple of measurements," says New Jersey state climatologist David Robinson, who studies snow and climate at Rutgers University. On top of those issues, there are more ingredients to consider when understanding precipitation trends than there are for temperature, because wind patterns in the atmosphere come into play. And snow has even more constraints than rain, as it only materializes when temperatures fall below the freezing point.

    That temperature dependence means that in a warmer future, "you're going to have more cases where temperatures are just above that magic mark," Robinson says, meaning more winter precipitation will fall as rain. This trend will start in more southerly locations (in the Northern Hemisphere), and at lower elevations, and will gradually progress northward as the planet heats up. In places where winter temperatures do stay below freezing, however, more snow could actually fall because warmer air holds more moisture. There is already some evidence backing both of these expected trends, Robinson says, with regions such as the Upper Midwest recording more snow in recent years and the southern reaches of the U.S. Seeing declines.

    That second point about moisture in a warmer atmosphere is behind one of the quirks scientists have uncovered. Although snow will become less common overall, extreme snowfalls will decline at a slower rate than average ones, so that blockbuster snowstorms become a bigger proportion of all snow events. M.I.T. Atmospheric scientist Paul O'Gorman explained this quirk in a 2014 study in Nature, noting that extreme snowfalls happen in a narrower temperature band than snow overall—temperatures need to be cold enough to freeze precipitation, but not so cold that the atmosphere dries out. So warming temperatures chip away faster at the broader temperature range in which all snow occurs than they do at the range for extreme snowfalls.

    Warming may also boost—and change the timing of—a particular type of snowfall. Lake-effect snow, which in the U.S. Is mostly commonly associated with the Great Lakes. Lake-effect snow happens when cold Canadian air pushes down over the lakes when they are still relatively warm and not yet iced over. This cold air causes the lake water to evaporate, which warms the air above the lake surface.

    That air rises, cooling again as it does so. Any moisture in it can then freeze and fall as snow. Rising temperatures will keep lakes warmer, providing more moisture when cold winds happen to blow overhead. Those warmer temperatures will also keep the lakes ice-free for longer into the fall, expanding the lake-effect season. Climate models suggest that trend will not last forever, though, as air temperatures could eventually become too warm to support snow.

    But while it does, it could mean that areas where lake-effect snow is common could see more Christmas snow if conditions are right. Yet on a broader scale, picking out any seasonal trends in snow extent—the area covered by snow—is more difficult. There is a clear trend toward earlier melt in the spring, which was particularly evident during the recent extremely warm years in the western U.S. "Irrefutably, [snow extent] is declining in the spring," Robinson says. But for fall and winter "there's no clear signal," he adds.

    "There's no glaring change … when it comes to Christmas-time snow." The bottom line, he says, is that we will see snowstorms in the future, and some of those will coincide with Christmas. "There's still going to be winter," Robinson says. "I think people can expect change, but if they're looking for the total demise of snow, I think that's premature."Since it was first noticed in Berks County, Pennsylvania, in 2014, the spotted lanternfly—a one-inch-long plant hopper that resembles a moth and is native to parts of Southeast Asia—has been wreaking havoc on East Coast lumber, tree fruit and wine industries. It has spread to at least 26 Pennsylvania counties as well as parts of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. The invasive, plant-killing insects are known to lay their eggs on almost any surface, including vehicle exteriors.

    These egg masses “are most concerning because they can go very far, by hitchhiking,” says Maureen Tang, a chemical and biological engineer at Drexel University. Tang is coordinating a project that asks the pubic to help halt the lanternfly’s spread. Anyone who spots an egg mass can submit photos, with which Tang’s team will train a sophisticated algorithm that scanning devices can use to search for the eggs. (You can contribute photos here.) Adult lanternflies can fly but prefer to hop. They feast on more than 70 plant species and leave behind “honeydew” droppings, which attract wasps and other stinging insects, and which breed a black, sooty mold that can be fatal to vegetation.

    The mature insects die in the cold, but their egg masses, which can hold between 30 and 50 eggs and look like a grayish putty, withstand winter temperatures and release a new generation in the spring. Lanternfly eggs. Credit. Getty Images The team currently has about 400 crowdsourced photos for its data set and anticipates thousands by winter’s end, says Drexel mechanical engineer Antonios Kontsos, who is building the image-processing algorithm. Once fully trained, it will let scanning devices detect significant infestations in real time, Kontsos says.

    The system will first be put to work in high-risk areas such as rail and shipping yards, where storage containers often sit around for long periods of time and it is difficult and dangerous for a human to check underneath them for egg masses, Tang says. The lanternflies’ favorite tree, Ailanthus—native to areas the bugs came from—tends to grow near railroad tracks. Drones already use computer vision to scan for signs of pests, by flying over crops and treescapes to check for significant areas of damage. But Tang says her team’s type of discrete, close-up egg detection system is new. €œ;We’ve seen a lot of ingenuity come from spotted lanternfly [research], and this is another great example,”.

    Says Heather Leach, who studies these insects at Pennsylvania State University and is not involved in the photo initiative. Any methods that improve the ability to detect and reduce spread of the bug, especially in areas where it’s not yet established, offers a better chance at controlling it, Leach says. The team aims to finish the algorithm and start using it to search for eggs before the bugs begin emerging. Egg masses are much easier to contain than jumping nymphs or swarming adults, notes Karen Verderame, Drexel’s curator of entomology. Researchers will first target top-priority areas using a portable scanning device that can search for egg masses in visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, Kontsos says.

    He anticipates someday using a version of this device in a “precision-agriculture framework,” installing it on a drone for efficient, large-area scans. €œFrom an environmental perspective, [this multidisciplinary effort is] the way of the future,” Verderame says. €œYou have to take an out-of-the-box perspective. It really will take a collaboration of the sciences.”.

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